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Austrian Winter Peas
Pisum sativum subsp. arvense
TYPE: Cool Season Annual Legume
ORIGIN: Common variety from Europe
ADAPTATIONS: Well drained loam or sandy loam soils of the Southeastern U.S.
USES: Primarily as a cover crop, provides high quality forage for livestock and deer.
BENEFITS: Adds Nitrogen to soil and provides winter erosion control.
NUTRITIONAL: High quality similar to White Clover.
PLANTING: RATE: 30 to 40 lb./acre - TIME: September - October METHOD: Well prepared, firm seed bed, alone or with a small grain. 1 inch deep. GRAZING: Not suited to grazing because of livestock damage from trampling. Excellent for wild game food plots and as a plow down green manure crop.
FOR WINTER FORAGE: Brown Top Millet, Leafy 22 Hybrid Pearl Millet, Summergrazer III Sorghum Sudangrass.
Korean Lespedeza - Korean is a warm season annual. It is easy to establish on well drained , clay, loamy soil and can tolerate acid poor soil types. Not much maintenance or high fertility is needed. When in pasture allow time for natural reseeding. When used for hay cut in bloom stage. A non-bloating that complements cool- season grasses in hay and pasture situations. Lespedezas are most productive July thru September. Can be used for erosion control and is excellent for wildlife. Seed in early Spring @ 30 # per acre 1/2 inch deep broadcast. Keep Ph above 5.5.
Graze King Rye - A variety of rye developed for use as a rapidly developing winter cover crop and for use as a forage or green manure plowdown. Can be utilized as late fall and early winter pasture. Early heading date is same as Winter King. It can be seeded immediately after corn silage removal in a double cropping program. Control fall grazing so as to leave 3-4 inches of growth. In early spring harvest in boot or flagleaf stage for hay or haylage. High in feed value and digestibility.Seed bed preparation - 2 to3 inches deep, trash free and firmed prior to seeding. Seeding Rate - Best results have been attained with rates from 90-120 lbs. per acre. Seeding Depth - 1 to 2 inches deep in a well firmed seedbed. Best results with small grains are usually obtained with a grain drill or similar type equipment. Fertilization - Excellent results have been obtained with 30#N, 40# P, and 80# K broadcast and worked into the seedbed prior to seeding. To maximize forage production, 60 to 70# N topdressed in late winter or early spring has increased forage yield. Harvest - For hay or haylage cut in boot or flagleaf stage for highest feed value. Planting Dates - Early August to early November.
Crownvetch - Crownvetch is a deep rooted perennial legume. It is winter hardy, drought tolerant, and will persist under light shade. The stems of crownvetch are coarse, semi-erect, and attain lengths of 3 to 5 feet at maturity. The showy blossoms vary in color from whitish-pink to light purple with various shades of pink. Crownvetch blooms from mid-June to August. Crownvetch spreads by seed and by heavy rhizomes. With favorable growing conditions and proper management, crownvetch plantings thicken with time and eventually almost completely eliminate other herbaceous species. Crownvetch should be seeded during spring. A special inoculent is required. The most extensive use of crownvetch in the United States has been for cover and erosion control. It is particularly valuable on cuts and fills which receive little or no mowing. On many such sites, pure stands of crownvetch have developed with excellent ground cover. On the better sites which receive some traffic and are mowed regularly, other species predominate and crownvetch is of only minor importance or disappears completely. When used as a forage, crownvetch is primarily used as pasture. It is course stemmed with a high proportion of stem to leaf and is difficult to harvest as hay. SEEDING RATE - Seed in early spring at 5-8 pound/acre. May require several years to obtain a productive stand.
Hairy Vetch - Hairy Vetch is of European origin; is a winter annual primarily used as a green manure crop and as soil cover. It should be seeded at 40-50 pounds per acre during the summer or fall months; late June or early July are the preferred months. Hairy vetch makes some growth during the late summer and the fall, lives through winter, and makes a vigorous spring growth. The second-year growth of hairy vetch can be utilized as livestock feed. It is palatable as pasture, or can be harvested as hay or silage. Yields are much lower than those of other common forage legumes. If the intent is to maintain the stand of hairy vetch, it must be permitted to mature seed. The plant has a high percentage of hard seeds which will volunteer for many years. Stands of vetch frequently are damaged over winter by diseases. Hairy vetch is used for cover crop in tobacco fields.
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